Gilding is the process of coating intricate artifacts with precious metals. Ancient Egyptians and Chinese coated their sculptures with thin metal films using gilding--and these golden sculptures have resisted corrosion, wear, and environmental degradation for thousands of years.
If equal amounts of matter and antimatter had formed in the Big Bang more than 13 billion years ago, one would have annihilated the other upon meeting, and today's universe would be full of energy but no matter to form stars, planets and life. Yet matter exists now.
Albert Einstein predicted that whenever light from a distant star passes by a closer object, gravity acts as a kind of magnifying lens, brightening and bending the distant starlight. Yet, in a 1936 article in the journal Science, he added that because stars are so far apart "there is no hope of observing this phenomenon directly."
Trillions of neutrinos, or ghost particles, are passing through us every second. While scientists know this fact, they don't know what role neutrinos play in the universe because they are devilishly hard to measure.
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