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Most of Earth’s carbon was hidden in the core during its formative years

Carbon is an essential building block for all living things on Earth and plays a vital role in many of the geologic processes that shape life on the planet, including climate change and ocean acidification.

Sediments may control location, magnitude of megaquakes

The world's most powerful earthquakes strike at subduction zones, areas where enormous amounts of stress build up as one tectonic plate dives beneath another.

Tree rings could pin down Thera volcano eruption date

Research led by the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has anchored a long sequence of tree rings, providing context for the civilizations that existed throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages.

Eclectic rocks influence earthquake types

New Zealand's largest fault is a jumble of mixed-up rocks of all shapes, sizes, compositions and origins.

Study challenges common view of oxygen scarcity on Earth 2 billion years ago

Shungite, a unique carbon-rich sedimentary rock from Russia that deposited 2 billion years ago, holds clues about oxygen concentrations on Earth's surface at that time.

Hidden source of carbon found at the Arctic coast

A previously unknown significant source of carbon just discovered in the Arctic has scientists marveling at a once overlooked contributor to local coastal ecosystems - and concerned about what it may mean in an era of climate change.

Geologists find lost fragment of ancient continent in Canada’s North

Sifting through diamond exploration samples from Baffin Island, Canadian scientists have identified a new remnant of the North Atlantic craton—an ancient part of Earth's continental crust.

How plants shape mountains

Plants may stabilize slopes, yet rainfall often intensifies soil erosion. Until now, just how these two things interact to form mountain topography was only clear for a few small regions on Earth.

Deep geologic structure may have magnified great 2011 Japan tsunami

On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9 earthquake struck under the seabed off Japan--the most powerful quake to hit the country in modern times, and the fourth most powerful in the world since modern record keeping began.