Genetics of ancient resistance to Inca Rule

Related Articles

The area known as Chachapoyas was a region conquered by the Incas in the late 15th century.

The fate of indigenous populations was only noted down from Spanish records based largely on Inca oral histories. Writings by the major chroniclers of the time, such as Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, were based on fragmentary second-hand accounts and claimed that the Chachapoya culture was resettled and assimilated across the Inca Empire.

A study by an international team from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has used genetic evidence to discover that genetically, the indigenous population has remained distinct to this region.

 

Their area of focus was a key region in the cloud-forest transition between the Andes and Amazonia in Peru. It was here that the Inca Empire faced resistance from the Warriors of the Clouds,” the Chachapoyas culture, most noted for construction of distinctive body-shaped sarcophagi and the monumental fortress of Kuelap, dubbed the “Machu Picchu of the north.”

It was originally thought that the Incas resettled millions of people from across the Empire into Chachapoya in order to punish and secure control of the region.

“By targeting various linguistic indicators, we were able to pinpoint a genetic signal in Chachapoyas that turned out to be far more diverse than we expected, especially in the male line, from father to son,” explains Chiara Barbieri, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, and lead author of the study. “First of all, there’s still a strong surviving Native American component, despite all the admixture with European genes ever since the Spanish conquest.

What’s more, here the native component is quite different from the main genetic network in the highlands of central and southern Peru. This is where the Inca Empire and its predecessors originated, and their conquests, road networks and empire-building ended up homogenizing the genetic make-up here.” The current study reveals how the people of Chachapoyas, by contrast, remained relatively isolated. “So it seems that some genetic legacy of the Chachapoyas did indeed resist Inca impacts, all the way through to today,” explains Barbieri.

MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN HISTORY

Header Image – The body-shaped sarcophagi of Karajía contained the remains of high-ranking Chachapoya ancestors. The inhabitants of Chachapoyas today may in part descend from these pre-Inca populations. CREDIT Chiara Barbieri

Download the HeritageDaily mobile application on iOS and Android

More on this topic

LATEST NEWS

Archaeologists Excavate 1,600-Year-Old Burial Containing Ornate Treasures

Archaeologists excavating a burial ground have discovered a grave containing ornate grave goods from the 5th century AD, a period of instability during the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

Archaeologists Discover Ancient Settlements Associated With “Polish Pyramids”

Archaeologists conducting a detailed study of the area near the Kujawy megalithic tombs, dubbed the “Polish Pyramids”, have identified the associated settlements of the tomb builders.

Rocky Planet Discovered in Virgo Constellation Could Change Search For Life in Universe

A newly discovered planet could be our best chance yet of studying rocky planet atmospheres outside the solar system, a new international study involving UNSW Sydney shows.

Sungbo’s Eredo – The “Queen of Sheba’s Embankment”

Sungbo’s Eredo is one of the largest man-made monuments in Africa, consisting of a giant system of ditches and embankments that surrounds the entire ljebu Kingdom in the rain forests of south-western Nigeria.

Woolly Mammoths May Have Shared the Landscape With First Humans in New England

Woolly mammoths may have walked the landscape at the same time as the earliest humans in what is now New England, according to a Dartmouth study published in Boreas.

Prehistoric killing machine exposed

Judging by its massive, bone-crushing teeth, gigantic skull and powerful jaw, there is no doubt that the Anteosaurus, a premammalian reptile that roamed the African continent 265 to 260 million years ago - during a period known as the middle Permian - was a ferocious carnivore.

Noushabad – The Hidden Underground City

Noushabed, also called Oeei or Ouyim is an ancient subterranean city, built beneath the small town of Nushabad in present-day Iran.

10 British Iron Age Hill Forts

A hill fort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.

Popular stories

Noushabad – The Hidden Underground City

Noushabed, also called Oeei or Ouyim is an ancient subterranean city, built beneath the small town of Nushabad in present-day Iran.

Ani – The Abandoned Medieval City

Ani is a ruined medieval city, and the former capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom, located in the Eastern Anatolia region of the Kars province in present-day Turkey.

Interactive Map of Earth’s Asteroid and Meteor Impact Craters

Across the history of our planet, around 190 terrestrial impact craters have been identified that still survive the Earth’s geological processes, with the most recent event occurring in 1947 at the Sikhote-Alin Mountains of south-eastern Russia.

The Sunken Town of Pavlopetri

Pavlopetri, also called Paulopetri, is a submerged ancient town, located between the islet of Pavlopetri and the Pounta coast of Laconia, on the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece.