Ancient pigs endured a complete genomic turnover after they arrived in Europe

Related Articles

Related Articles

New research led by Oxford University and Queen Mary University of London has resolved a pig paradox.

Archaeological evidence has shown that pigs were domesticated in the Near East and as such, modern pigs should resemble Near Eastern wild boar.

They do not. Instead, the genetic signatures of modern European domestic pigs resemble European wild boar.

Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the study shows how this has happened. Working with more than 100 collaborators, researchers from Oxford’s School of Archaeology sequenced DNA signatures from more than 2,000 ancient pigs including genomes from 63 archaeological pigs collected across the Near East and Europe over the last 10,000 years.

The findings revealed that the first pigs to arrive into Europe alongside farmers 8,000 years ago had clear Near Eastern genetic ancestry. Over the course of the next 3,000 years, however, ancient domestic pigs hybridised with European wild boar to such an extent that they lost almost all their Near Eastern ancestry. Some low level of Near Eastern ancestry, however potentially remained in the genome of modern European domestic pigs, and this likely explains their characteristic black, and black and white spotted coat colours. Higher level of Near Eastern ancestry were also maintained in pig populations on Mediterranean islands maintained probably because these populations experienced comparatively less gene flow with European wild boar relative to pigs on the continent.

Professor Greger Larson, Director of the Palaeogenomics & Bio-Archaeology Research Network (PalaeoBarn) at Oxford and senior author of the study, said: “Having access to ancient genomes over such a large space and time has allowed us to see the slow-motion replacement of the entire genome of domestic pigs. This suggests that pig management in Europe over millennia was extensive, and that though swineherders maintained selection for some coat colours, domestic pigs interacted with wild boar frequently enough that they lost the ancestral signature of the wild boar from which they were derived.”


Subscribe to more articles like this by following our Google Discovery feed - Click the follow button on your desktop or the star button on mobile. Subscribe

Dr. Laurent Frantz, lead author of the study at Queen Mary University of London, said: “We are all taught that the big change was the initial process of domestication, but our data suggests that almost none of the human-selection over the first 2,500 years of pig domestication has been important in the development of modern European commercial pigs.”

Now that the team have pieced together a timeline of the genomic history of pigs in western Eurasia, the next steps in the research will be to precisely identify, in the genome of modern European domestic pigs, the few genes that retained their original Near Eastern ancestry. This will allow us to assess whether the artificial selection applied by early farmers in the Fertile Crescent, over 10,000 years ago, left any further legacy in modern pigs beyond coat colour.

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

Header Image – New research led by Oxford University and Queen Mary University of London has resolved a pig paradox. Archaeological evidence has shown that pigs were domesticated in the Near East and as such, modern pigs should resemble Near Eastern wild boar. They do not. Instead, the genetic signatures of modern European domestic pigs resemble European wild boar. Credit : Domenico Fulgione Federico, University of Naples

- Advertisement -

Download the HeritageDaily mobile application on iOS and Android

More on this topic

LATEST NEWS

Study Suggests the Mystery of The Lost Colony of Roanoke Solved

The Roanoke Colony refers to two colonisation attempts by Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a permanent English settlement in North America.

Drones Map High Plateaus Basin in Moroccan Atlas to Understand Human Evolution

Researchers from the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) have been using drones to create high-resolution aerial images and topographies to compile maps of the High Plateaus Basin in Moroccan Atlas.

The Kerguelen Oceanic Plateau Sheds Light on the Formation of Continents

How did the continents form? Although to a certain extent this remains an open question, the oceanic plateau of the Kerguelen Islands may well provide part of the answer, according to a French-Australian team led by the Géosciences Environnement Toulouse laboratory.

Ancient Societies Hold Lessons for Modern Cities

Today's modern cities, from Denver to Dubai, could learn a thing or two from the ancient Pueblo communities that once stretched across the southwestern United States. For starters, the more people live together, the better the living standards.

Volubilis – The Ancient Berber City

Volubilis is an archaeological site and ancient Berber city that many archaeologists believe was the capital of the Kingdom of Mauretania.

Pella – Birthplace of Alexander The Great

Pella is an archaeological site and the historical capital of the ancient kingdom of Macedon.

New Argentine fossils uncover history of celebrated conifer group

Newly unearthed, surprisingly well-preserved conifer fossils from Patagonia, Argentina, show that an endangered and celebrated group of tropical West Pacific trees has roots in the ancient supercontinent that once comprised Australia, Antarctica and South America, according to an international team of researchers.

High-tech CT reveals ancient evolutionary adaptation of extinct crocodylomorphs

The tree of life is rich in examples of species that changed from living in water to a land-based existence.

Fish fossils become buried treasure

Rare metals crucial to green industries turn out to have a surprising origin. Ancient global climate change and certain kinds of undersea geology drove fish populations to specific locations.

Archaeologists Discover Viking Toilet in Denmark

Archaeologists excavating a settlement on the Stevns Peninsula in Denmark suggests they have discovered a toilet from the Viking Age.

Popular stories