Surgeries and treatments come and go. A new BMJ guideline, for example, makes “strong recommendations” against the use of arthroscopic surgery for certain knee conditions. But while this key-hole surgery may slowly be scrapped in some cases due to its ineffectiveness, a number of historic “cures” fell out of favour because they were more akin to a method of torture. Here are five of the most extraordinary and unpleasant.
Most of the forts in India are actually castles, fortified palaces or fortresses, but when the British Government in India were cataloguing the defences in the 17th–19th century, they used the word forts which became the common description across India.
Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defence in the Roman Empire. Forts, Castra and military camps stretched across the vast empire, in concentration on the borders and in some of the most remote of locations to enforce Roman authority and control.
It might not be something you want to think about very often, but it turns out that the way we treat our dead in the modern age is heavily influenced by the way our ancestors treated theirs.
Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in England and grew in sophistication, leading to a sharp increase in the complexity and length of sieges. Whilst many castles have survived the tests of time, many others fell to ruin. Here's a glimpse of the countless enchanting ruined castles across England...
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.