Blue eyes and dark skin, that’s how the European hunter-gatherer looked

La Braña 1, name used to baptize a 7,000 years old individual from the Mesolithic Period, whose remains were recovered at La Braña-Arintero site in Valdelugueros (León, Spain) had blue eyes and dark skin.

These details are the result of a study conducted by Carles Lalueza-Fox, researcher from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), in collaboration with the Centre for GeoGenetics (Denmark). La Braña 1 represents the first recovered genome of an European hunter-gatherer. The research is published in Nature.

The Mesolithic, a period that lasted from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago (between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic), ends with the advent of agriculture and livestock farming, coming from the Middle-East. The arrival of the Neolithic, with a carbohydrate-based diet and new pathogens transmitted by domesticated animals, entailed metabolic and immunological challenges that were reflected in genetic adaptations of post-Mesolithic populations. Among these is the ability to digest lactose, which La Braña individual could not do.

Lalueza-Fox states: “However, the biggest surprise was to discover that this individual possessed African versions in the genes that determine the light pigmentation of the current Europeans, which indicates that he had dark skin, although we can not know the exact shade”.

CSIC researcher, who works at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology (a joint centre of CSIC and the University Pompeu Fabra (UPF), located in Barcelona, adds: “Even more surprising was to find that he possessed the genetic variations that produce blue eyes in current Europeans, resulting in a unique phenotype in a genome that is otherwise clearly northern European”.

La Braña 1, the name used to baptize a 7,000-year-old individual from the Mesolithic Period, had blue eyes and dark skin. Credit: PELOPANTON / CSIC

La Braña 1, the name used to baptize a 7,000-year-old individual from the Mesolithic Period, had blue eyes and dark skin. Credit: PELOPANTON / CSIC

The study of the genome suggests that current populations nearest to La Braña 1 are in northern Europe, such as Sweden and Finland. In addition, the work points out that La Braña 1 has a common ancestor with the settlers of the Upper Paleolithic site of Mal’ta, located in Lake Baikal (Siberia), whose genome was recovered a few months ago. Lalueza-Fox concludes: “These data indicate that there is genetic continuity in the populations of central and western Eurasia. In fact, these data are consistent with the archeological remains, as in other excavations in Europe and Russia, including the site of Mal’ta, anthropomorphic figures –called Paleolithic Venus– have been recovered and they are very similar to each other”.

DNA with an “exceptional” preservation

La Braña-Arintero site was discovered by chance in 2006 and excavated by Julio Manuel Vidal Encinas, archeologist of the Council of Castilla y León. The cave, located in a cold mountainous area with a steady temperature and 1,500 meters below the sea level, contributed to the “exceptional” preservation of the DNA from two individuals found inside, and they were called La Braña 1 and La Braña 2.

According to Iñigo Olalde, lead author of the study, “the intention of the team is to try to recover the genome of the individual called La Braña 2, which is worse preserved, in order to keep obtaining information about the genetic characteristics of these early Europeans”.

Contributing Source : Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

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  • StelioKardami

    Still, it remains a freakin’ theory, not a fact of Science. Allow me to point out the obvious: You cannot be sure that this specific “Spaniard”, did -or did not- have blue eyes.. Is it really a fact that a set of blue eyes, is due to a single mutation, or perhaps it occurs because of more complex set of genetic alterations, that could also have occcured in several spots, besides the Urheimat of the Germanic Language Group (Denmark, the south tip of Sweden and the coastline of Germany), such as the Black Sea and the Pamirs?

  • RyanClark2

    Actually Mr. Kardami… Tacitus, a Roman historian, wrote down what the Gauls looked like, as did Caesar. There descriptions agreed that the peoples living in the European West and North West had weathered reddish-hued skin, black hair, and blue eyes.

    Farther still, we can look at the Norse Eddas where in the Hymskringla, it talks about the slave-caste/race that had black hair and blue eyes. The Norse were known to take Celtic (Gaedelic and Brithonic) people as slaves. Today, we call them Irish, Scottish, and Welsh (recent sampling of genetics from modern England suggests a high level of Celtic genes there too.)

    If marrow is present in teeth or large bones of a sample, they can actually figure out what the coloring the person had. Blue eyes, black hair, darker/lighter skin, and many many other traits. Genetic science is getting pretty thorough these days!

    It is a common trait among Celtic, Norse, and Germanic people (and their descendants), to have blond hair, blue eyes. Red Hair, Blue eyes. Black Hair, blue eyes. Brown eyes is certainly possible too as and increase in melanin (the stuff that makes brown skin brown and brown eyes brown) is a dominant gene. A lot of Northern European folk will have blond hair when a baby until 5 or six, and then their hair will get darker.

    My ancestors were Irish, Welsh, Scottish, Scandinavian, German. I had very blond hair when I was a boy and now it is nearly black. I have brown eyes. I have “olive” skin.

  • StelioKardami


    Celts were not the original stock of the Iberian Peninsula, but OK, you’re pretty much right in everything else. Or, am I wrong again?
    I’ve just pointed out the obvious: The single mutation of the bright-eye pigmentation, could have occcured several times and in several places of the World, besides [once in] the urheimat of the Germanic nations (Denmark and, as Caucasus, the Pamirs, maybe the urheimat of the Celts as well, in modern Austria & Bavaria!